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Home >> Checklists >> Madhya Pradesh >> Pench






Pench Tiger Reserve (PTR) (78? 55E to 79? 35'E and 21? 8'N to 22?N) lies in the southern lower reaches of Satpura Hills. According to the Biogeographic classification PTR falls under 6E Biogeographic Province of the Deccan Peninsula (Rodgers and Panwar 1988). PTR was declared as the 19th Tiger Reserve of India in the year 1992. The Tiger reserve comprises of the National Park, Sanctuary and the Reserve Forest, encompassing an area of 757.85 sq. km (Fig. 1).


The Pench river, from which the Reserve derives it’s name, flows through the center of the Park dividing it into the west Chindwara block (141.61sq km) and the east Seoni block (145.24 sq. km). The river dries out in summer resulting in the formation of several puddles, which are an important water source for the fauna of the Reserve. On the southern end of the river stands a Totladoh hydroelectric dam. The creation of the dam has resulted in the submergence of 54 sq. km area of the Reserve. In addition to this, a water tank (c.a 0.5 sq. km) at Bodha nala, constructed in 1994, is found in the Seoni block. These water bodies are of major attraction and provide refuge to many migratory waterfowls and other water birds.

The vegetation of the area has falls into two major categories, the Tropical Dry Deciduous and the Tropical Moist Deciduous type (Champion & Seth 1968). These forest types, for the present study, were further sub-divided into following types:

1. Teak dominant forest: Teak (Tectona grandis) with associated species like Madhuca indica, Diospyros melanoxylon, Terminalia tomentosa, Buchanania lanzan, Lagerstroemia parviflora, Miliusa velutina and Lannea coromandelica.
2. Miscellaneous forest: Teak mixed, Anogeissus latifolia- Bosewellia serrata mixed stand, hill forest and Zizyphus-Butea mixed woodland.
3. Bamboo dominant (Dendrocalamus strictus) forest
4. Cliestanthus collinus woodland
5. Grassland – Savanna
6. Open scrub jungle : Dominated by Lantana camera
7. Wetlands : River, streams, ponds and reservoir.

The terrain is gently undulating and dissected by number of seasonal streams and nullahs. The altitude of the Reserve ranges from 350 m to 650 m. Climatically the area has four seasons: summer (March - June), monsoon (July – August), post monsoon (September – October) and winter (November - February). The temperature in winter falls as low as – 2 °C and goes to a maximum of 49° C in summer. The average rainfall is around 1400 mm, 80% of which is received during southwest monsoon between July and September.

Little previous work has been carried out on the avifauna of the reserve. Kumar (1990) had listed 171 species of birds in the Management Plan of PTR. Some information on distribution of bird species is available (Pasha and Sankar 1996, Pasha 1998) One of us (R.J.) carried out a study on the bird community structure of PTR between October 1997 and May 1998. M.K.S.P. and G.A. stayed in PTR from February 1997 to August 2000 studying the ecology of gaur (Bos gaurus).


The area was regularly surveyed for birds in all seasons and all major habitats were covered. Birds seen were identified and recorded alongwith habitat type and status (resident, winter visitor, local migrant and straggler). On the basis of the frequency of sighting, the bird species were assigned abundance values (absent, rare, uncommon, occasional and common). The birds recorded were categorized into seven trophic guilds, viz. insectivores, omnivores, carnivores, frugivores, granivores, piscivores and necterivores. For the identification of the birds Ali & Ripley (1987) were referred to. The present list is the outcome of bird observations carried out in PTR between February 1996 to July 2000 spread over all four seasons.


A total of 268 species of birds have been recorded from PTR (Appendix 1). This study has contributed an additional 91 species to the previous list of PTR. Among the birds sighted, 164 are resident 77 winter visitors, 5 summer visitors, 17 local migratory and 5 vagarant / stragglery species (Fig. 2). The composition of birds in different the guilds in PTR shows that the insectivorous guild is the most abundant with 34% of the total species and necterivours guild being the least abundant guild with only 1% of the total species. The composition of other five guilds is 26% omnivores, 16% carnivores, 10% frugivores, 6% granivores and 6% piscivores respectively (Fig. 3). The Pench reservoir spread over 50 sq. km. is a major attraction to the migratory waterfowls and the dead trees scattered amidst the reservoir is good nesting site for many water birds. Some species of significance importance nesting in the reservoir are Wolly-necked stork, Painted stork, Asian openbill, White ibis and Purple heron. The waders in PTR occur in low numbers. The plausible reason for the low abundance of waders in PTR could be that, the edges of the forest end abruptly into these water bodies leaving practically little or no space for the creation of the banks and shallow areas, which are quintessential for these wading birds. Another note worthy mentioning is the over-wintering of brahminy ducks in PTR. in 1997 and 1998. During these two years about 50 ruddy shelducks stayed over in PTR as late as the month of April.

Fig. 2. Status of bird species recorded from Pench Tiger Reserve.

Fig. 3. Avifaunal guilds recorded from Pench Tiger Reserve.


1. Great crested grebe Podiceps cristatus, is not a common winter visitor to PTR, and has been sighted only once in the Pench reservoir in January 1999.

2. Pied harrier Circus melanolucas, is a winter visitor to the area and has been sighted continuously, every winter, since 1996. C. melanolucas was sighted for the first time in November 1995 (Pasha & Sankar 1996) which is the range extension record for this raptor.

3. Laggar falcon Falco biarmicus cherrug was sighted once in March 1997.

4. Painted spurfowl Gallopardix linulatta is very rare in PTR. Seen only twice, at the same site, in March and April l996 (Pasha 1998). In dry deciduous forest dominated by teak (Tectona grandis).

5. Malabar pied hornbill Anthracoceros coronatus about 7-10 pairs of these are present in the PTR. Commonly seen along the banks of Pench river in the northern part of the National Park. They breed in PTR.

6. Rosy minivet Pericrocotus roseus has been sighted only once. A male sighted in a scrubland, in the National Park, near Karmajhiri village.

7. Shama Copsyhus malabaricusa male of the bird was seen near to the Bodha nala tank. The area has moist deciduous vegetation dominant by bamboo. All previous sightings have been, from this locality only, largely in summer.


Sporadic fires and illegal fishing are two major problems that the management of PTR faces. The fire occurs sporadically annually, predominantly during summer. These can be detrimental to the ground nesting birds, which breed during the same season. Also these fires do affect the old dead trees, which are an abode to the hole nesting birds. Effective fire control management, which the Reserve staff has embarked upon, is an effective step to combat such situations. Illegal fishing in the waters of Pench reservoir is not only a threat to the Reserve flora and fauna but for migratory waterfowls too visiting this area every year. This results in the mortality of several water birds as they get caught and entangled into the fishing net put-up by the fishermen in the reservoir. Though through effective patrolling and vigil the management in PTR has minimized the pressure of fishermen in the reservoir but still the staff needs to be equipped better to provide a strong resistance and deter the existing problem. Better communication facilities, greater mobility and manpower will provide a stability to a larger extent within the Reserve and pave way for the future conservation of biological and natural resources in PTR.


Ali, S and Ripley, S.D. (1983) Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan. Compact Edition. New Delhi: Oxford University Press

Champion, H.G. and Seth, S.K. (1968) A revised survey of forests types of India. New Delhi: Govt. of India.

Pasha, M.K.S. and Sankar, K. (1996) Sighting of Pied harrier Circus melanoleucos (Pennant) in Pench Tiger reserve, Madhya Pradesh. Newsletter for Birdwatchers. Vol. 36 (2):38-39.

Pasha, M.K.S. (1998) Spurfowls of Pench Tiger Reserve, Madhya Pradesh. WPA News. (57):

Kumar, S. (1990) Management plan of Pench Tiger Reserve, Madhya Pradesh (1990-1995).

Rodgers, W.A. and Panwar, H.S. (1988) Planning a Wildlife Protected Area Network in India. Vol I & II. Wildlife Institute of India. DehraDun.

Appendix – 1. Checklist of birds sighted in Pench Tiger Reserve, Madhya Pradesh.


Painted Francolin Francolinus pictus ms, os C R

Grey Francolin Francolinus pondicerianus os, cs C R

Jungle Bush Quail Perdicula asiatica ms, bm, gr C R

Red Spurfowl Galloperdix spadicea tk, ms, bm C R

Painted Spurfowl Galloperdix lunulata bm, ms X R

Red Junglefowl Gallus gallus tk, ms, bm, os, cs C R

Indian Peafowl Pavo cristatus ms, cc, gr, os, cs C R

Lesser Whistling-duck Dendrocygna javanica wl C LM

Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea wl C W

Cotton Pygmy-goose Nettapus coromandelianus wl U W

Gadwall Anas strepera wl O W

Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope wl O W

Mallard Anas platyrhynchos wl U W

Spot-billed Duck Anas poecilorhyncha wl U W

Northern Pintail Anas acuta wl C W

Garganey Anas querquedula wl O W

Common Teal Anas crecca wl O W

Red-crested Pochard Rhodonessa rufina wl O W

Common Pochard Aythya ferina wl O W

Ferruginous Pochard Aythya nyroca wl O W

Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula wl U W

Yellow-legged Buttonquail Turnix tanki gr, os, cs U R

Barred Buttonquail Turnix suscitator ms, gr, os U R

Eurasian Wryneck Jynx torquilla os X W

Brown-capped Pygmy Woodpecker Dendrocopos nanus tk, ms, bm C R

Yellow-crowned Woodpecker Dendrocopos mahrattensis tk, ms, bm C R

Rufous Woodpecker Celeus brachyurus tk, ms, bm, cc U R

Lesser Yellownape Picus chlorolophus tk, bm U R

Streak-throated Woodpecker Picus xanthopygaeus tk, ms, bm O R

Black-rumped Flameback Dinopium benghalense tk, ms, cc C R

White-naped Woodpecker Chrysocolaptes festivus tk, ms, bm C R

Brown-headed Barbet Megalaima zeylanica tk, ms, bm, cc C R

Coppersmith Barbet Megalaima haemacephala tk, ms C R

Indian Grey Hornbill Ocyceros birostris tk, ms, bm C R

Malabar Pied Hornbill Anthracoceros coronatus tk, ms O R

Common Hoopoe Upupa epops cs C R

Indian Roller Coracias benghalensis tk, ms, cs C R

Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis wl O R

Stork-billed Kingfisher Halcyon capensis wl O R

White-throated Kingfisher Halcyon smyrnensis ms, cc, cs, wl C R

Pied Kingfisher Ceryle rudis wl C R

Green Bee-eater Merops orientalis ms, cc, os, cs C R

Blue-tailed Bee-eater Merops philippinus ms U S

Pied Cuckoo Clamator jacobinus tk, ms, bm, os, cs C S

Common Hawk Cuckoo Hierococcyx varius tk, ms, bm, cc C R

Indian Cuckoo Cuculus micropterus tk, ms, bm U W


Grey-bellied Cuckoo Cacomantis passerinus tk, bm, os O R

Asian Koel Eudynamys scolopacea tk, ms, bm, cc C R

Sirkeer Malkoha Phaenicophaeus leschenaultii ms, bm, os O R

Greater Coucal Centropus sinensis ms, bm, gr, os, cs C R

Alexandrine Parakeet Psittacula eupatria tk, ms, bm, cc C R

Rose-ringed Parakeet Psittacula krameri tk, ms, bm, cc, gr, cs C R

Plum-headed Parakeet Psittacula cyanocephala tk, ms, bm, cc C R

White-rumped Needletail Zoonavena sylvatica ms, bm O R

Asian Palm Swift Cypsiurus balasiensis cs O R

House Swift Apus affinis cs, wl C R

Crested Treeswift Hemiprocne coronata tk, ms, bm C R

Barn Owl Tyto alba cs U R

Oriental Scops Owl Otus sunia tk, ms U R

Collared Scops Owl Otus bakkamoena tk, ms, bm O R

Eurasian Eagle Owl Bubo bubo tk, ms O R

Brown Fish Owl Ketupa zeylonensis tk U R

Brown Wood Owl Strix leptogrammica tk, ms U R

Jungle Owlet Glaucidium radiatum tk, ms, bm, cc, os C R

Spotted Owlet Athene brama os, cs U R

Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus ms X W

Grey Nightjar Caprimulgus indicus tk, ms, gr, os, cs C R

Indian Nightjar Caprimulgus asiaticus tk, ms, os, cs C R

Savanna Nightjar Caprimulgus affinis gr, os C R

Rock Pigeon Columba livia cs X R

Oriental Turtle Dove Streptopelia orientalis tk, ms, bm O R

Laughing Dove Streptopelia senegalensis os, cs C R

Spotted Dove Streptopelia chinensis tk, ms, cc, cs C R

Red Collared Dove Streptopelia tranquebarica ms, bm O R

Eurasian Collared Dove Streptopelia decaocto tk, os, cs C R

Emerald Dove Chalcophaps indica tk X R

Yellow-footed Green Pigeon Treron phoenicoptera tk, ms, bm C R

White-breasted Waterhen Amaurornis phoenicurus wl C R

Purple Swamphen Porphyrio porphyrio wl O R

Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus wl C R

Common Coot Fulica atra wl O W

Painted Sandgrouse Pterocles indicus os O R

Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago wl O W

Green Sandpiper Tringa ochropus wl C W

Wood Sandpiper Tringa glareola wl U W

Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos wl O W

Little Stint Calidris minuta wl O W

Greater Painted-snipe Rostratula benghalensis wl C R

Bronze-winged Jacana Metopidius indicus wl O R

Eurasian Thick-knee Burhinus oedicnemus tk, os, cs C R

Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus wl C R

Little Ringed Plover Charadrius dubius wl O W

Yellow-wattled Lapwing Vanellus malabaricus cs O R

River Lapwing Vanellus duvaucelii wl C R


Red-wattled Lapwing Vanellus indicus cs, wl C R

Indian Courser Cursorius coromandelicus cs U R

River Tern Sterna aurantia wl O R

Osprey Pandion haliaetus wl O W

Oriental Honey-buzzard Pernis ptilorhyncus tk, ms, gr, os, cs C R

Black-shouldered Kite Elanus caeruleus gr, os, cs C R

Black Kite Milvus migrans cs X R

Brahminy Kite Haliastur indus wl U R

Pallas's Fish Eagle Haliaeetus leucoryphus wl O R

Grey-headed Fish Eagle Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus wl O R

Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus cs C R

White-rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis ms, cs C R

Long-billed Vulture Gyps indicus cs C R

Cinereous Vulture Aegypius monachus cs X V

Red-headed Vulture Sarcogyps calvus tk, ms, cs O R

Short-toed Snake Eagle Circaetus gallicus gr, os, cs U R

Crested Serpent Eagle Spilornis cheela tk, ms C R

Eurasian Marsh Harrier Circus aeruginosus wl O W

Pied Harrier Circus melanoleucos gr X W

Crested Goshawk Accipiter trivirgatus tk X V

Shikra Accipiter badius tk, ms, cc, cs C R

Besra Accipiter virgatus ms X V

White-eyed Buzzard Butastur teesa tk, ms, cc, gr, os, cs C R

Common Buzzard Buteo buteo ms U W

Tawny Eagle Aquila rapax tk, ms U R

Bonelli's Eagle Hieraaetus fasciatus tk O R

Booted Eagle Hieraaetus pennatus tk O W

Changeable Hawk Eagle Spizaetus cirrhatus tk, ms, bm C R

Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus gr, cs C R

Laggar Falcon Falco jugger ms, os, cs O R

Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus tk, wl U W

Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis wl C R

Darter Anhinga melanogaster wl U LM

Little Cormorant Phalacrocorax niger wl C R

Indian Cormorant Phalacrocorax fuscicollis wl O LM

Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo wl O LM

Little Egret Egretta garzetta wl C R

Grey Heron Ardea cinerea wl O W

Purple Heron Ardea purpurea wl C LM

Great Egret Casmerodius albus wl C R

Intermediate Egret Mesophoyx intermedia wl C R

Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis gr, os, cs, wl C R

Indian Pond Heron Ardeola grayii wl C R

Little Heron Butorides striatus wl O R

Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax wl C R

Black-headed Ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus wl C R

Black Ibis Pseudibis papillosa wl U R

Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia wl O LM


Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala wl O R

Asian Openbill Anastomus oscitans wl O R

Black Stork Ciconia nigra wl O W

Woolly-necked Stork Ciconia episcopus wl O R

Black-necked Stork Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus wl U R

Indian Pitta Pitta brachyura tk, ms, bm, os C S

Blue-winged Leafbird Chloropsis cochinchinensis tk, ms, bm, cc C R

Golden-fronted Leafbird Chloropsis aurifrons tk, ms O R

Rufous-tailed Shrike Lanius isabellinus os O W

Brown Shrike Lanius cristatus os, cs O W

Bay-backed Shrike Lanius vittatus gr, os O R

Long-tailed Shrike Lanius schach ms, bm, gr, os, cs C R

Southern Grey Shrike Lanius meridionalis os, cs U LM

Rufous Treepie Dendrocitta vagabunda tk, ms, bm, cc C R

House Crow Corvus splendens cs X R

Large-billed Crow Corvus macrorhynchos tk, ms, bm, gr, os, cs C R

Ashy Woodswallow Artamus fuscus cs X LM

Eurasian Golden Oriole Oriolus oriolus tk, ms, cc O R

Black-hooded Oriole Oriolus xanthornus tk, ms, bm, cc C R

Large Cuckooshrike Coracina macei tk, ms, bm C R

Black-headed Cuckooshrike Coracina melanoptera ms, cc U W

Small Minivet Pericrocotus cinnamomeus tk, ms C R

White-bellied Minivet Pericrocotus erythropygius os U LM

Long-tailed Minivet Pericrocotus ethologus tk, ms, bm, cc C W

Scarlet Minivet Pericrocotus flammeus tk, ms O LM

White-throated Fantail Rhipidura albicollis tk, ms, bm C R

White-browed Fantail Rhipidura aureola tk, cc, os C R

Black Drongo Dicrurus macrocercus tk, gr, os, cs C R

Ashy Drongo Dicrurus leucophaeus tk, ms O W

White-bellied Drongo Dicrurus caerulescens tk, ms C R

Greater Racket-tailed Drongo Dicrurus paradiseus tk, ms, bm C R

Black-naped Monarch Hypothymis azurea tk, ms, bm C R

Asian Paradise-flycatcher Terpsiphone paradisi tk, ms, bm, cc, os O S

Common Iora Aegithina tiphia tk, ms, bm, cc C R

Common Woodshrike Tephrodornis pondicerianus tk, ms, bm, cc C R

Blue Rock Thrush Monticola solitarius cs C W

Orange-headed Thrush Zoothera citrina ms, bm O R

Scaly Thrush Zoothera dauma bm U W

Tickell's Thrush Turdus unicolor tk, bm U W

Eurasian Blackbird Turdus merula ms, bm O LM

Dark-throated Thrush Turdus ruficollis tk, bm U W

Asian Brown Flycatcher Muscicapa dauurica ms, cc U W

Brown-breasted Flycatcher Muscicapa muttui ms X W

Red-throated Flycatcher Ficedula parva tk, ms, bm, os C W

Ultramarine Flycatcher Ficedula superciliaris ms, bm O W

Verditer Flycatcher Eumyias thalassina tk, ms, bm, cc O W

Tickell's Blue Flycatcher Cyornis tickelliae tk, ms, bm, os C R

Grey-headed Canary Flycatcher Culicicapa ceylonensis tk, ms, bm O W


Oriental Magpie Robin Copsychus saularis tk, cc, os C R

White-rumped Shama Copsychus malabaricus ms, bm U LM

Indian Robin Saxicoloides fulicata os, cs C R

Black Redstart Phoenicurus ochruros tk, os, cs C W

Common Stonechat Saxicola torquata gr, os, cs O W

Pied Bushchat Saxicola caprata gr, os O W

Grey Bushchat Saxicola ferrea os U W

Rufous-tailed Wheatear Oenanthe xanthoprymna os X V

Chestnut-tailed Starling Sturnus malabaricus tk, ms, bm O R

Brahminy Starling Sturnus pagodarum tk, ms, bm, cc C R

Rosy Starling Sturnus roseus tk O W

Common Starling Sturnus vulgaris os, cs U W

Asian Pied Starling Sturnus contra tk U R

Common Myna Acridotheres tristis tk, ms, cc, os, cs C R

Jungle Myna Acridotheres fuscus ms X LM

Fire-capped Tit Cephalopyrus flammiceps ms, bm X W

Great Tit Parus major tk, ms, bm, cc, os C R

Black-lored Tit Parus xanthogenys tk, ms, bm O R

Plain Martin Riparia paludicola wl O R

Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica gr, cs, wl C W

Wire-tailed Swallow Hirundo smithii wl C S

Red-rumped Swallow Hirundo daurica gr, os, cs C W

Streak-throated Swallow Hirundo fluvicola wl U W

White-eared Bulbul Pycnonotus leucotis os X V

Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer tk, ms, bm, cc, os C R

White-browed Bulbul Pycnonotus luteolus os O R

Rufous-fronted Prinia Prinia buchanani os O R

Grey-breasted Prinia Prinia hodgsonii tk, ms, gr, os C R

Jungle Prinia Prinia sylvatica os O R

Ashy Prinia Prinia socialis gr, os U R

Oriental White-eye Zosterops palpebrosus tk, ms, bm, cc C R

Blyth's Reed Warbler Acrocephalus dumetorum ms, os C W

Booted Warbler Hippolais caligata os O W

Common Tailorbird Orthotomus sutorius tk, ms, bm, cc, os C R

Common Chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita ms, gr, os, wl O W

Sulphur-bellied Warbler Phylloscopus griseolus tk, ms O W

Hume's Warbler Phylloscopus humei tk, ms O W

Greenish Warbler Phylloscopus trochiloides tk, ms, bm, cc C W

Large-billed Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus magnirostris tk U W

Western Crowned Warbler Phylloscopus occipitalis tk, ms U W

Indian Scimitar Babbler Pomatorhinus horsfieldii ms, bm U R

Tawny-bellied Babbler Dumetia hyperythra bm, os C R

Yellow-eyed Babbler Chrysomma sinense ms, bm, os C R

Common Babbler Turdoides caudatus os X R

Large Grey Babbler Turdoides malcolmi os, cs U R

Jungle Babbler Turdoides striatus tk, ms, bm, cc, os C R

Brown-cheeked Fulvetta Alcippe poioicephala ms, bm U R

Lesser Whitethroat Sylvia curruca os C W

Singing Bushlark Mirafra cantillans gr, cs O R


Indian Bushlark Mirafra erythroptera os, cs C R

Ashy-crowned Sparrow Lark Eremopterix grisea os, cs C R

Rufous-tailed Lark Ammomanes phoenicurus cs O R

Oriental Skylark Alauda gulgula gr, cs O R

Thick-billed Flowerpecker Dicaeum agile tk, ms, bm C R

Pale-billed Flowerpecker Dicaeum erythrorhynchos ms O R

Purple Sunbird Nectarinia asiatica tk, ms, bm, cc C R

House Sparrow Passer domesticus tk, gr, os, cs C R

Chestnut-shouldered Petronia Petronia xanthocollis tk, ms, bm, cc, gr C LM

Forest Wagtail Dendronanthus indicus ms X W

White Wagtail Motacilla alba wl O W

White-browed Wagtail Motacilla maderaspatensis wl C R

Citrine Wagtail Motacilla citreola wl O W

Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava gr, wl O W

Grey Wagtail Motacilla cinerea ms, wl C W

Paddyfield Pipit Anthus rufulus cs C R

Tawny Pipit Anthus campestris os, cs O W

Long-billed Pipit Anthus similis os, wl O W

Tree Pipit Anthus trivialis ms, bm O W

Olive-backed Pipit Anthus hodgsoni tk, ms, bm, cc C W

Baya Weaver Ploceus philippinus gr, os, cs O LM

Red Avadavat Amandava amandava gr, os C R

Indian Silverbill Lonchura malabarica os, cs C R

White-rumped Munia Lonchura striata cs O LM

Scaly-breasted Munia Lonchura punctulata os, cs O R

Black-headed Munia Lonchura malacca cs O LM

Common Rosefinch Carpodacus erythrinus tk, ms O W

Crested Bunting Melophus lathami os X W

Black-headed Bunting Emberiza melanocephala cs U W


tk : Teak forest
ms : Miscellaneous forest (teak mixed, Anogeissus-Boswellia stand, hill forest, and
zizyphus stand)
bm : Bamboo dominant forest
cc : Cleistanthus collinus woodland
gr : Grassland - Savanna
os : Open scrub jungle (dominated by Lantana)
cs : Countryside / Cultivation
wl : Wetlands (river, streams, ponds, and reservoir)

C : Common
O : Occassional
U : Uncommon
X : Rare

R : Resident
W : Winter visitor
S : Summer visitor
LM : Local Migrant
V : Vagrant / Straggler

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